On 30 AugustSudan filled its first tanker-load of oil. A gigantic pipeline snaking up from oilfields over kilometres into the African hinterland was at last disgorgingbarrels a day of crude oil at a nearly-completed marine terminal near Port Sudan, on the Red Sea.
Early history[ edit ] De Rivalry in the oil and gas maps Sakhalin's eastern promontories, but is not aware that he is visiting an island map from Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age. Flint implements such as those found in Siberia have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets similar to European examples, primitive pottery with decorations like those of the Olonetsand stone weights used with fishing nets.
A later population familiar with bronze left traces in earthen walls and kitchen- middens on Aniva Bay. Among the indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Ainu in the southern half, the Oroks in the central region, and the Nivkhs in the north.
The Mongol Empire made some efforts to subjugate the native people of Sakhalin starting in about CE.
In the early Ming dynasty —the tributary relationship was re-established. By the middle of the 15th century, following the introduction of Chinese political and commercial institutions in the Amur region, the Sakhalin Ainu were making frequent tributary visits to Chinese-controlled outposts.
There is some evidence that the Ming eunuch Admiral Yishiha reached Sakhalin in during one of his expeditions to the lower Amur, and granted Ming titles to a local chieftain. This suggests that the island was at least nominally under the administration of the Nurgan Regional Military Commissionwhich was established by Yishiha near today's village of Tyr on the Siberian mainland inand continued operating until the mids.
European and Japanese exploration[ edit ] Display of Sakhalin on maps varied throughout the 18th century. This map from a atlas, based on the earlier work by d'Anvillewho in his turn made use of the information collected by Jesuits inasserts the existence of Sakhalin—but only assigns to it the northern half of the island and its northeastern coast with Cape Patiencediscovered by de Vries in In an early colonization attempt, a Japanese settlement was established at Ootomari on Sakhalin's southern end in The Nerchinsk Treaty between Russia and China, which defined the Stanovoy Mountains as their mutual border, made no explicit mention of the island; however, the Qing dynasty — did consider the island to be part of its territory, and enacted policies of a pattern similar to the previous Ming dynastywhich drew Sakhalin further into the "system for subjugated peoples".
Local people were forced to pay tribute at Qing posts, and Qing officials sometimes granted titles to local elders, entrusting them with the task of "keeping the peace". By the midth century, Qing officials had registered 56 surname groups; of these, Qing sources note that six clans and households were those of Ainu and Nivkh who came under the Qing administrative umbrella.
The Dutch captain, however, was unaware that it was an island, and 17th century maps usually showed these points and often Hokkaido as well as being part of the mainland. The Jesuits were told that the islanders were believed to be good at reindeer husbandry.
They reported that the mainlanders used a variety of names to refer to the island, but Saghalien anga bata i. As a result, many 17th century maps showed a rather strangely shaped Sakhalin, which included only the northern half of the island with Cape Patiencewhile Cape Aniva, discovered by de Vries, and the "Black Cape" Cape Crillon were thought to be part of the mainland.
Though unable to pass through its northern "bottleneck" due to contrary winds, La Perouse charted most of the Strait of Tartaryand islanders he encountered near today's Strait of Nevelskoy told him that the island was called "Tchoka" or at least that is how he recorded the name in Frenchand it was used on some maps thereafter.
Alarmed by the visits of European powers, Japan proclaimed its sovereignty over the whole island in It is the house where he stayed in Sakhalin during On the basis of its belief that it was an extension of Hokkaido, both geographically and culturally, Japan again proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island as well as the Kuril Islands chain inin the face of competing claims from Russia.
Inhowever, the Russian navigator Gennady Nevelskoy recorded the existence and navigability of the strait later given his name, and — in defiance of the Qing and Japanese claims — Russian settlers began establishing coal mines, administration facilities, schools, and churches on the island.
InRussia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimodawhich declared that nationals of both countries could inhabit the island: Russians in the north, and Japanese in the south, without a clearly defined boundary between. Russia also agreed to dismantle its military base at Ootomari.
In the Russians established a penal colony. In the distinguished author Anton Chekhov visited the penal colony on Sakhalin and published a memoir of his journey. Japan proclaimed its sovereignty over Sakhalin which they called Karafuto yet again inand the government built a stele announcing the claim at the northern extremity of the island.
The island remained under shared sovereignty until the signing of the Treaty of Saint Petersburgin which Japan surrendered its claims in Sakhalin to Russia. Settler's way of life. Near church at holiday.A Historical Perspective. The oceans had long been subject to the freedom of-the-seas doctrine - a principle put forth in the seventeenth century essentially limiting national rights and.
1 - Introduction OIL BOOM? On 30 August , Sudan filled its first tanker-load of oil.
A gigantic pipeline snaking up from oilfields over kilometres into the African hinterland was at last disgorging , barrels a day of crude oil at a nearly-completed marine terminal near Port . 24 Oct Shell caught in fresh controversy in Nigeria SHELL, the global oil giant, has lurched into another controversy in Nigeria where it is blamed for the disastrous oil spills after 50 years of extraction.
This book is about pipelines in many of the oil and gas producing countries. The aurthor takes the reader into the political and geographical regions of concern such as Nigeria with its pipelines being tampered with and secondary pipelines in Iraq and other parts of the Middle East.
Oil Sands mining news. Explore related Oil Sands articles for more information on the Oil Sands mining industry. Oct 29, · Oil Sands mining news. Explore related Oil Sands articles for more information on the Oil Sands mining industry.