Education[ edit ] In the late 20th century, the proportion of young people attending university in the UK increased sharply, including many who previously would not have been considered to possess the appropriate scholastic aptitude. Inthe UK Minister for Universities, Margaret Hodgecriticised Mickey Mouse degrees as a negative consequence of universities dumbing down their courses to meet "the needs of the market": Why would radio stations broadcast digital signals, rather than analogue signals?
Support Aeon Donate now As I was growing up in England in the latter half of the 20th century, the concept of intelligence loomed large.
|Scotland[ edit ] In Scotland the main authority is the case of Brown v. HMA which stated that entrapment will occur when law enforcement officials cause an offense to be committed which would not have occurred had it not been for their involvement.|
It was aspired to, debated and — most important of all — measured. At the age of 11, tens of thousands of us all around the country were ushered into desk-lined halls to take an IQ test known as the Plus.
The results of those few short hours would determine who would go to grammar school, to be prepared for university and the professions; who was destined for technical school and thence skilled work; and who would head to secondary modern school, to be drilled in the basics then sent out to a life of low-status manual labour.
The idea that intelligence could be quantified, like blood pressure or shoe size, was barely a century old when I took the test that would decide my place in the world.
To say that someone is or is not intelligent has never been merely a comment on their mental faculties. It is always also a judgment on what they are permitted to do.
Intelligence, in other words, is political. Sometimes, this sort of ranking is sensible: But it has a dark side. As well as determining what a person can do, their intelligence — or putative lack of it — has been used to decide what others can do to them.
Throughout Western history, those deemed less intelligent have, as a consequence of that judgment, been colonised, enslaved, sterilised and murdered and indeed eaten, if we include non-human animals in our reckoning. But the problem has taken an interesting 21st-century twist with the rise of Artificial Intelligence AI.
In recent years, the progress being made in AI research has picked up significantly, and many experts believe that these breakthroughs will soon lead to more.
Pundits are by turn terrified and excited, sprinkling their Twitter feeds with Terminator references. To understand why we care and what we fear, we must understand intelligence as a political concept — and, in particular, its long history as a rationale for domination. Nor does it have a direct translation into German or ancient Greek, two of the other great languages in the Western philosophical tradition.
Indeed, they were obsessed with it, or more precisely a part of it: Although today many scholars advocate a much broader understanding of intelligence, reason remains a core part of it. So when I talk about the role that intelligence has played historically, I mean to include this forebear.
The story of intelligence begins with Plato. In all his writings, he ascribes a very high value to thinking, declaring through the mouth of Socrates that the unexamined life is not worth living.
Plato emerged from a world steeped in myth and mysticism to claim something new: And so he launched the idea that the cleverest should rule over the rest — an intellectual meritocracy.This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Case study: Entrapment in criminal law. There are two main issues raised by the question. Entrapment Essays: Over , Entrapment Essays, Entrapment Term Papers, Entrapment Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. Essay on Entrapment Concept of Entrapment Entrapment is an affirmative defense that can be raised by the accused who committed the crime solely on the basis of persuasion and instigation from the law enforcement authority.
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Activists demanded a reform in . In this essay, it will be shown that state encouragement to commit a crime can make a difference to the ‘elementary proposition'. Firstly, I will compare two different rationales offered for the purpose of doctrine of entrapment.